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Even if few things are known from its history, it is certified that it was inhabited since antiquity. In the Byzantine years, it presented rich commercial activity as testified by the abundant ceramic findings and the crowd of destroyed Byzantine churches (Agios Yannis, Agios Antonios, Profitis Ilias, Stavros, Agia Triada).

Later Schoinousa became a base of operations for pirates. The bays Mirsini,Sifneiko, Lioliou, Bazaiou, Gerolimniona were their dens. During Ottoman domination, the island was depopulated and came under the property of the Chozoviotissa Monastery of Amorgos. With liberation after the Greek revolution, Monastery monks installed families from Amorgos in the island and thus Schoinousa began once again to be inhabited. The newcomers of the island began to cultivate the ground, to raise animals, to fish and to build. Despite the unfavourable conditions,residents accomplished to develop commercial relations with the surrounding islands, they founded a school for their children and churches for their religious needs. However,isolation as well as economic social and educational needs, forced a big part of the population to seek a better life abroad. Today, relaxed  life of the island, growth of the tourist sector and the creation of a High school, have contributed in keeping residents and in particular the young people on the island.
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